26 Feb 2018
Cross-validation is a fundamental paradigm in modern data analysis. However, it is largely applied to supervised settings, such as regression and classification. Here, the procedure is simple: fit your model on, say, 90% of the data (the training set), and evaluate its performance on the remaining 10% (the test set). However, this idea does not easily extend to other unsupervised methods, such as dimensionality reduction methods or clustering.

**TL;DR** I cover how cross-validation is a somewhat tricky problem for matrix factorization models (including PCA & clustering as special cases) and provide some Python code snippets for fitting these models with held out data.

26 Feb 2018
I recently got interested in figuring out how to perform cross-validation on PCA and other matrix factorization models. The way I chose to solve the cross-validation problem (see my other post) revealed another interesting problem: how to fit a linear regression model with missing dependent variables. Since I did not find too many existing resources on this material, I decided to briefly document what I learned in this blog post.

27 Mar 2016
Many scientists are familiar with organizing and handling data in 2D tables. For example, we might record the mRNA expression level of $p$ genes in $n$ tissue samples. We might store these data in a $n \times p$ matrix, where each row corresponds to a sample, and each column corresponds to a gene. Principle components analysis (PCA) is a standard way to reduce the dimension $p$ (which can be quite large) to something more manageable.

While it is quite common for biologists to apply PCA to their data, it is less common for them to really understand the mechanics and assumptions implicit in this analysis. Opening up the black box on a statistical technique is worthwhile in and of itself, but the real reason I'm motivated to write this is the number of seriously cool and super useful extensions/variations of PCA (e.g.,

Non-negative matrix factorization,

Sparse PCA,

Tensor Decompositions), which will have a growing impact on modern neuroscience and biology. I want to blog about techniques of this flavor for the next few posts.

14 Dec 2015
I was warned that NIPS is an overwhelming conference, but I didn’t listen because I’ve gotten used to SfN, which is several times larger. But for what NIPS lacks in size (nearly 4,000 attendees, still no joke) it more than makes up for in it’s energy. It feels like I haven’t talked about anything other than statistics and machine learning for the last 7 days, and I don’t even remember what a good night’s sleep feels like anymore. I’m writing this up on the bus home, physically and emotionally defeated. But my boss told me to consolidate some brief notes from the conference, so here is my attempt.

18 Nov 2015
The previous two posts (part 1, part 2) on clustering have been somewhat depressing and pessimistic. However, the reality is that scientists use simple clustering heuristics *all the time*, and often find interpretable results. What gives? Is the theoretical hardness of clustering flawed? Or have we just been deluding ourselves? Have we been fooled into believing results that are in some sense fundamentally flawed?

This post will explore a more optimistic possibility, which has been referred to as the *“Clustering is Only Difficult When It Does Not Matter” hypothesis*. Proponents argue that, while we can construct worst-case scenarios that cause algorithms to fail, clustering techniques work very well in practice because real-world datasets often have characteristic structure that more-or-less guarantees the success of these algorithms. Put differently, Daniely et al. (2012) say that “clustering is easy, otherwise it is pointless” — whenever clustering fails, it is probably because the data in question were not amenable to clustering in the first place.

01 Oct 2015
In the previous post, we saw intuitive reasons why clustering is a hard,^{[1]} and maybe even *ill-defined*, problem. In practice, we are often stuck using heuristics that can sometimes perform quite badly when their assumptions are violated (see *No free lunch theorem*). Is there a mathematical way of expressing all of these difficulties? This post will cover some theoretical results of Kleinberg (2002) related to this question.

*Notation.* Suppose we have a set of $N$ datapoints $x^{(1)}, x^{(2)}, …, x^{(N)}$. A *clustering function* produces a *partition* (i.e. a set of clusters), based on the pairwise distances between datapoints. The distance between two points $x^{(i)}$ and $x^{(j)}$ is given by $d(x^{(i)},x^{(j)})$, where $d$ is the *distance function*. We could choose different ways to measure distance,^{[2]} for simplicity you can imagine we are using Euclidean distance, $\sqrt{ (x^{(i)}-x^{(j)}) \cdot (x^{(i)}-x^{(j)})}$.

### An axiomatic approach to clustering

There are many possible clustering functions we could come up with. Some are stupid — randomly split the data into two groups — and others are useful in practice. We would like to precisely define what it means for a clustering function to be “useful in practice.”

Kleinberg (2002) proposed that the ideal clustering function would achieve three properties: *scale-invariance*, *consistency*, *richness*. The idea is that these principles should align with your intuitive notion of what a “good clustering function” is:

11 Sep 2015
I’ve been working on some clustering techniques to identify cell types from DNA methylation data. When you dive into the literature on clustering, two things becomes immediately apparent: first, clustering is fundamental to many scientific questions, and second, there is “distressingly little general theory” on how it works or how to apply it to your particular data.

This was surprising to me. I imagine that most biologists and neuroscientists come across k-means clustering, hierarchical clustering, and similar techniques all the time in papers related to their work. Given how commonplace these techniques are, one would think that we have a solid handle on how they work and what can go wrong.

This will be the first post in a short series on clustering techniques. I will try to explain why clustering is hard from a high-level, intuitive perspective. The next post will cover some more technical theoretical results. I’ll focus on Jon Kleinberg’s paper which precisely defines an ideal clustering function, but then proves that *no such function exists* and that there are inevitable tradeoffs that must be made. The final few posts will cover other theoretical work and some current projects of mine.